Finalized in 2001, USB 2.0 is a complete overhaul to the Universal Serial Bus input/output bus protocol which
allows much higher speeds than the older USB 1.1 standard did. USB 1.1 allowed a maximum transfer rate of 12Mbits/second.
That rate is now called 'USB.' Though some manufacturers label their products Full-Speed USB. Note that this seems a bit deceptive.
It’s easy to mistake Full-Speed for Hi-Speed.
You won’t be fooled from now on as you now aware that Full Speed USB is only 12Mbits/second where Hi-Speed USB mode is capable of a
much faster 480Mbits/second. As an aside, USB mice and keyboards need only 1.5Mbits/s to function.
That performance level is also named 'USB' by the USB Promoter Group. To sum it up, USB 2.0 specification incorporates
three speeds: Hi-Speed, Full-Speed and Low-Speed. You as a consumer don't need to figure out all the jargons.
Just keep in mind that only 'Hi-Speed USB' and 'USB' host and devices exist.
To sum it up, USB 2.0 specification incorporates three speeds: Hi-Speed, Full-Speed and Low-Speed.
You as a consumer don't need to figure out all the jargons. Just keep in mind that only 'Hi-Speed USB' and 'USB' host and devices exist.
2001 Windows XP
The next major release of Microsoft Windows was 'Windows XP', this again
attempts to bring together the NT/2000 and 95/98/ME versions of the operating
system. XP stands a better chance of succeeding, partially because of the
improved technology, largely because as time (6 years or more) has passed since
the first release of Windows 95 much of the 'legacy' MS-DOS/non-Windows software
(and in particular, games) that caused problems with Windows 2000 has been
rewritten or replaced. See
2002 XP SR1
Rather than release a 2002 version of Windows
XP, Microsoft released an interim version of fixes named SR1.
This covered all the updates and patches released up to the time of release plus a few enhancements. Not long after this release SR1b was issued. The main reason
for this was the removal of their JAVA tool after the unsuccessful law suit
with Sun Systems (the inventor of Java) . Many complained that SR1 caused systems to slow down and more patches were
released to compensate.
This version also tried to cover the piracy issue. Any of the recognised "web" serial numbers were no longer able to get onto
the Microsoft Update page for the next releases of fixes and patches..
LindowsOS SPX - the first "Broadband OS"
An operating system-- built to take full advantage of broadband technology.
LindowsOS SPX is designed to fully utilize the world of tomorrow, where
Internet connectivity is bountiful and cheap, and computers are ubiquitous.
tomorrow's computing needs, computer users need a computing solution that's
affordable and beneficial, a system where software is digitally transmitted,
easy to deploy and highly customizable. Computing needs to be effortless, so
people spend less time working on computers and more time having computers work
for them; LindowsOS SPX, the broadband operating system, does all of this.
LindowsOS SPX provides an advanced digital experience at an affordable price.
Applications can all be digitally downloaded and installed at the click of a
mouse. Individual machines can be customized quickly and easily.
2002 Lindows sign up with Microtel
SAN DIEGO –June 17, 2002 — Lindows.com, Inc., whose mantra has been “Bringing
Choice to Your Computer,” delivers on its promises of choice by
partnering with Microtel Computer Systems to ship Lindows.com’s Operating
System, LindowsOS, pre-installed on their personal computers.
For less than
$300, computer-buyers can take advantage of LindowsOS and Microtel’s offering at Walmart.com (NYSE and PCX: WMT) therefore bringing computer ownership closer to
those with limited resources.
LindowsOS, a Linux®-based operating system, formerly only available to
Lindows.com Insiders www.lindows.com/signup
is now publicly available for the first time on Microtel PCs
2003 Multithreading processors
Multithreading processors are launched on several of the main manufacturers motherboards.
Multithreading is the ability of an operating system to execute
different parts of a program, called threads, simultaneously.
The programmer must carefully design the program in such a way that all the threads can run at the same time without interfering
with each other. This has the effect of several processors running program parts at the same time.
2003 Intel Canterwood
Intel Corp. launched the Intel 875P or "Canterwood" chipset (using
multithread technology) in April, replacing Direct Rambus memory with synchronous DRAM in high-end PCs.
Expected to do double duty both as a high-end PC and low-end workstation product,
the 875P chipset also ratchets up the front-side bus to 800-MHz.
Intel is expected to release a complementary 3.0-GHz Pentium 4 with an 800-MHz FSB to take advantage of the new platform.
Finally, the chipset marks the first Intel chipset offering to integrate Serial ATA directly into the chipset; a special version of the chipset, designated by the "-R" suffix, will add RAID support. However, Intel's RAID supports only the most basic RAID 0, or "striping".
The Canterwood chipset, can use up to four unbuffered DIMMs of DDR400 memory, up to 4 Gbytes total. The increase is significant,
as most PCs ship out the door with 256 Mbytes or 512 Mbytes, and plunging memory prices have made upgrading memory reasonably inexpensive.
2003 Sobig F the most infectious virus
Microsoft has once again come under fire for its flawed operating system software after the latest rash of viruses struck
computers and networks around the world. The Internet was ravaged by the MS Blaster (lovesan) and Sobig.F worms, both of which exploited known vulnerabilities in Microsoft's
Windows operating system.
The viruses infected more than a million PCs each, with Sobig.F grasping the title of most infectious virus ever after generating
as many as one in ten emails sent globally at its peak.
Companies, home users and government departments crawled to a near standstill under the weight of email traffic.
As the dust settled and network administrators started counting the cost to business, calls came for tighter controls over the
Windows OS and for governmental boycotts of the popular software. Fears were echoed across the Atlantic, where the Computer and Communications Industry Association (CCIA) pleaded with the Department of
Homeland Security to rethink its decision to put Microsoft software on its servers and PCs.
Microsoft did publicise the existence of the vulnerability to inform users of the need to download patches,
but relies on users downloading large patches. However, this move also alerted virus writers to the vulnerability.
Although Microsoft made software update to protect against the virus readily available,
anti virus firms said the company's decision to tel users to download only a specific patch was flawed policy that backfired.
The advice from Microsoft was to download and use this one particular patch, the advice wasn't to employ all of the patches that were
The worry was about just how man people would be trying to download all thes patches at once and therefore bring down the Microsoft update centre.
At its height Microsoft had to apply 34 patches in one day.
Sobig.F constituted more than 60 per cent of all virus activity for August 2003 and it contained instructions to fetch more software
from 20 previously hacked PCs around the world. More would surely follow
2003 Microsoft Office 2003
The latest version of Microsoft's Office suite, Office 2003, hit the streets
in August 2003. It incorporates improved collaborative and server products underpinned with XML compatibility.
Office 2003 lacks dramatic improvements to the core systems elements such as Word or Excel, but it debuts Microsoft's first application-specific Digital Rights Management (DRM)
technology. This system allows firms to control how email, Word or Excel documents are copied, read, printed and distributed.
Most of the development work that Microsoft undertook to differentiate the 2003 release centres on collaborative working applications,
with an updated Outlook, SharePoint Portal services, Office Live Communications Server, and the introduction of a note taking tool
dubbed One Note that synchronises typed or Tablet PC jottings with associated digital audio recordings.
The product is also integrated with XML-based web services
2003 Intel Prescott processor announced
Shipments of Prescott, the 90-nanometer successor to the Pentium 4, will account for 60 percent of all Intel desktop processors by the second
quarter of next year. Also, a version of the technology will be incorporated into the Celeron product line,
according to Paul Otellini, Intel president and chief operating officer. Prescott's clock speed will hit 4GHz by the end of next year, he added.
2003 Wi-Fi communications
Wi-Fi technology, also called 802.11, is an emerging and increasingly popular technology that provides high-speed wireless
Internet access in many locations around the world, including airports, cafes, corporate offices, universities,
factories and homes.
Longhorn is the codename for the next generation of Windows XP. Details were first seen in the internet in May 2003 and rumours of its
release in the Autumn of the same year
Unfortunately as this turned out to be a full code re-write the launch was delayed.
A Beta release was launched in November 2003 and received good reports. The
same month the Beta became widely distributed on the Internet. An interim
update to Windows XP (SR2) was also delayed and not expected until early 2004.